IIIrd Semester Time Table


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What is shotcrete?

Introduction to shotcrete or sprayed concrete

Shotcrete or gunite was invented by Mr. Carl Ethan Akeley (1864-1926) in 1910. For attractions of a park, this American Architect was mandated to realize in concrete the reproduction of a dinosaur. Considering the sizes of the structure, he had the idea to develop a “cement gun” machine allowing the spraying of a cementitious mortar. Shotcrete was created!

Probably a symbolic coincidence, but the same year, Mr. Kaspar Winkler founded Sika. Since that time Sika has greatly contributed to the development of the shotcrete technology. By shotcrete technology development, we mean the continuous development of chemical additives and admixtures for shotcrete and as well the development of spraying equipments.

Fields of shotcrete application

Shotcrete is mainly used in Underground construction projects as preliminary or permanent structural support. By Underground constructions, we mean the construction of structures like road-rail tunnel, hydropower plant, mines, parking, subway, metro, storage area etc.
However shotcrete is as well as an economical tool to realize stabilization work (slope), swimming pools, waterways, concrete repairs, inner lining and architectural structures. About 90% of the shotcrete applied goes into Underground construction projects. Total volume of shotcrete worldwide applied yearly is more than 12 millions cubic meters

What is shotcrete?

As per the American Concrete Institute (ACI), shotcrete can be defined as a mortar or concrete, pneumatically projected at high velocity through a pressure resistant conveying line onto a surface, where it is compacted on impact.

Cement, sand, aggregate, water, additives and admixtures are the components entering in the production of the shotcrete mix.

Compared to normal concrete, shotcrete differs mainly from three points:

  • The maximal size of the aggregate used.
  • The way to place it.
  • The mixture of shotcrete can be dry or wet.

Regarding terminology we can describe Gunite as sprayed mortar while Shotcrete as a sprayed concrete.
By gunite we means a cementitious mixture of which the particles size is limited to 8 mm.
For shotcrete we consider the use of aggregates of which the maximal size is 16 mm. However, in the last 10 years there is a tendency to limit the maximal aggregate size to 12 mm.

Shotcrete development can be summarized from its start to nowadays as follows:
Dry process –> dry process with powder accelerator –> wet process with Alkali liquid accelerator –> wet process with Alkali free accelerator.

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Free Civil Engineering Books



Structural Engineering Handbook 28.23 MB

Earthquake Engineering Handbook 134MB Part 1 Part 2

Structural Details in Concrete 7.43 MB

Bridge Design Manual 2000 - Hydraulic Design 0.52 MB

Bridge Design Manual 2003 6.07 MB

Design Manual Metric 18.81 MB

ANSYS - Methods of Analysis 9.58 MB

Finite Element Analysis of Structural Steelwork Beam to Column Bolted Connections 0.41 MB

Generative Assembly Structural Analysis 1.17 MB

Structural Analysis 1.81 MB

Finite Element Method - Boundary Element Method - Course Notes 2001 0.95 MB

Finite Element Method - Boundary Element Method - Course Notes 2003 0.80 MB

Fixed Grid Finite Element Analysis in Structural Design & Optimization 0.22 MB

The Finite Element Method Using Matlab 1.02 MB

Finite Element Method Volumes 1, 2, 3 54.93 MB

Finite Element Methods - Lectures 1.11 MB

Forensic Structural Engineering Handbook 23.34 MB

Euro code 3 - Design of Steel Structures Part 1-8 General Design of Joints 2.19 MB

Euro code 3 - Design of Steel Structures 1 DD ENV 1993 11.22 MB

Metallic Materials Properties Development & Standardization 70.36 MB

Composites Materials Handbook Vol4 1.08 MB

Engineering - Structural ANSYS Tutorials

Part 1 97.66 MB Part 2 97.66 MB Part 3 97.66 MB Part 4 44.77 MB

Biaxial-Mutiaxial Fatigue & Fracture 9.15 MB

Failure Analysis Case Studies 8.43 MB

Beginning AutoCAD 2002 10.85 MB

Modeling with AutoCAD 2002 11.71 MB

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WHAT IS CIVIL ENGINEERING

This definition of Civil Engineering is found at Answer.com. The tasks of civil engineering now come larger and larger.

Civil Engineering is a branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineering includes planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

The civil engineer holds the safety, health, and welfare of the public paramount. Civil engineering projects and systems should conform to governmental regulations and statutes; should be built economically to function properly with a minimum of maintenance and repair while withstanding anticipated usage and weather; and should conserve energy and allow hazard-free construction while providing healthful, safe, and environmentally sound utilization by society.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Because the desired objectives are so broad and encompass an orderly progression of interrelated components and information to arrive at the visually pleasing, environmentally satisfactory, and energy-frugal end point, civil engineering projects are actually systems requiring the skills and inputs of many diverse technical specialties, all of which are subsets of the overall civil engineering profession.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering.

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