IIIrd Semester Time Table

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What is shotcrete?

Introduction to shotcrete or sprayed concrete

Shotcrete or gunite was invented by Mr. Carl Ethan Akeley (1864-1926) in 1910. For attractions of a park, this American Architect was mandated to realize in concrete the reproduction of a dinosaur. Considering the sizes of the structure, he had the idea to develop a “cement gun” machine allowing the spraying of a cementitious mortar. Shotcrete was created!

Probably a symbolic coincidence, but the same year, Mr. Kaspar Winkler founded Sika. Since that time Sika has greatly contributed to the development of the shotcrete technology. By shotcrete technology development, we mean the continuous development of chemical additives and admixtures for shotcrete and as well the development of spraying equipments.

Fields of shotcrete application

Shotcrete is mainly used in Underground construction projects as preliminary or permanent structural support. By Underground constructions, we mean the construction of structures like road-rail tunnel, hydropower plant, mines, parking, subway, metro, storage area etc.
However shotcrete is as well as an economical tool to realize stabilization work (slope), swimming pools, waterways, concrete repairs, inner lining and architectural structures. About 90% of the shotcrete applied goes into Underground construction projects. Total volume of shotcrete worldwide applied yearly is more than 12 millions cubic meters

What is shotcrete?

As per the American Concrete Institute (ACI), shotcrete can be defined as a mortar or concrete, pneumatically projected at high velocity through a pressure resistant conveying line onto a surface, where it is compacted on impact.

Cement, sand, aggregate, water, additives and admixtures are the components entering in the production of the shotcrete mix.

Compared to normal concrete, shotcrete differs mainly from three points:

  • The maximal size of the aggregate used.
  • The way to place it.
  • The mixture of shotcrete can be dry or wet.

Regarding terminology we can describe Gunite as sprayed mortar while Shotcrete as a sprayed concrete.
By gunite we means a cementitious mixture of which the particles size is limited to 8 mm.
For shotcrete we consider the use of aggregates of which the maximal size is 16 mm. However, in the last 10 years there is a tendency to limit the maximal aggregate size to 12 mm.

Shotcrete development can be summarized from its start to nowadays as follows:
Dry process –> dry process with powder accelerator –> wet process with Alkali liquid accelerator –> wet process with Alkali free accelerator.

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Free Civil Engineering Books

Structural Engineering Handbook 28.23 MB

Earthquake Engineering Handbook 134MB Part 1 Part 2

Structural Details in Concrete 7.43 MB

Bridge Design Manual 2000 - Hydraulic Design 0.52 MB

Bridge Design Manual 2003 6.07 MB

Design Manual Metric 18.81 MB

ANSYS - Methods of Analysis 9.58 MB

Finite Element Analysis of Structural Steelwork Beam to Column Bolted Connections 0.41 MB

Generative Assembly Structural Analysis 1.17 MB

Structural Analysis 1.81 MB

Finite Element Method - Boundary Element Method - Course Notes 2001 0.95 MB

Finite Element Method - Boundary Element Method - Course Notes 2003 0.80 MB

Fixed Grid Finite Element Analysis in Structural Design & Optimization 0.22 MB

The Finite Element Method Using Matlab 1.02 MB

Finite Element Method Volumes 1, 2, 3 54.93 MB

Finite Element Methods - Lectures 1.11 MB

Forensic Structural Engineering Handbook 23.34 MB

Euro code 3 - Design of Steel Structures Part 1-8 General Design of Joints 2.19 MB

Euro code 3 - Design of Steel Structures 1 DD ENV 1993 11.22 MB

Metallic Materials Properties Development & Standardization 70.36 MB

Composites Materials Handbook Vol4 1.08 MB

Engineering - Structural ANSYS Tutorials

Part 1 97.66 MB Part 2 97.66 MB Part 3 97.66 MB Part 4 44.77 MB

Biaxial-Mutiaxial Fatigue & Fracture 9.15 MB

Failure Analysis Case Studies 8.43 MB

Beginning AutoCAD 2002 10.85 MB

Modeling with AutoCAD 2002 11.71 MB

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This definition of Civil Engineering is found at Answer.com. The tasks of civil engineering now come larger and larger.

Civil Engineering is a branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineering includes planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

The civil engineer holds the safety, health, and welfare of the public paramount. Civil engineering projects and systems should conform to governmental regulations and statutes; should be built economically to function properly with a minimum of maintenance and repair while withstanding anticipated usage and weather; and should conserve energy and allow hazard-free construction while providing healthful, safe, and environmentally sound utilization by society.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Because the desired objectives are so broad and encompass an orderly progression of interrelated components and information to arrive at the visually pleasing, environmentally satisfactory, and energy-frugal end point, civil engineering projects are actually systems requiring the skills and inputs of many diverse technical specialties, all of which are subsets of the overall civil engineering profession.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering.

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Autocad 2010 crack

last time i posted about AUTOCAD 2010
now her`s the crack for that & here are some screenshot`s
copy that .dll file to the folder below & replace the highlighted adlmint.dll file with this adlmint.dll file

Click Here to download the crack


rar pass "rajaspidey"
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A civil engineer practices civil engineering, the branch of engineering which focuses on the design, construction, and maintenance of public works. These professionals may be employed by municipalities or by private firms which have landed contracts to build such public works. The qualifications to become a civil engineer vary by nation, but generally the position requires at least a four year degree, and in some cases formal certification will be needed as well before someone can advertise as a civil engineer.
Civil engineering is one of the oldest and most extensive branches of engineering. It focuses on aspects of public works like transportation, water treatment, government buildings, public facilities such as airports and train stations, and other large scale projects which benefit the public. A civil engineer must be able to design safe structures which meet standard codes in the regions that they are being built in. These structures must be designed with maintenance, efficiency, and other economic concerns in mind as well to ensure that they will endure through years of use.
In terms of transportation, civil engineers build bridges, tunnels, freeway interchanges, and other structures which are designed to facilitate the smooth, even flow of traffic while allowing for expansion and higher use rates. Water treatment includes sewage plants, delivery systems for fresh water, dams, and other facilities which handle both fresh and waste water, while government buildings run the gamut from police stations to city halls. A civil engineer might also work on projects like a city power plant or a major office building.
Pay for civil engineers tend to be reasonably high, considering that these professionals are highly trained and very skilled. Jobs in public service may not command as much pay, but they may come with benefits and prominent positions in the community, while private contractors can woo civil engineers with very attractive benefits and compensation packages. The position can also be dangerous, depending on how much time a civil engineer spends in the field, but it can also be very exciting, especially in regions which are integrating cutting edge technology and design techniques into their public works.
People who are interested in a career in civil engineering should plan on taking large amounts of math and science in high school, and they should pursue degrees in civil engineering in college. For advanced positions and additional knowledge, graduate school is strongly recommended.
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